The branches of the femoral artery A. femoralis, the femoral artery, represents the continuation of the trunk of the external iliac artery, deriving its name from the site of passage under the inguinal ligament through the lacuna vasorum near the middle of the extension of this ligament. To stop bleeding, the femoral artery is pressed against the pub pub at the place of its exit to the thigh. Medially from the femoral artery lies the femoral vein, with which it passes in the femoral triangle, going first to sulcus iliopectineus, then to sulcus femoralis anterior, and then penetrates through the canalis adductorius into the popliteal fossa, where it continues to a. poplitea
The branches of the femoral artery, a. femoralis:
1. A. epigastrica superficialis, superficial epigastric artery, retires at the very beginning of the femoral artery and goes under the skin to the navel.
2. A. circumflexa ilium superficialis, the superficial artery enveloping the iliac bone, is directed to the skin in the spina iliaca anterior superior region.
3. Ah. pudendae externae, the external genital arteries, depart in the region of hiatus saphenus and are directed to the external genitals (usually two in number) – to the scrotum or to the labia majora.
4. A. profunda femoris, the deep artery of the femur, is the main vessel through which the vascularization of the femur. It is a thick trunk that departs from the back side of a. femoralis 4–5 cm below the inguinal ligament, lies first behind the femoral artery, then appears on the lateral side and, giving up numerous branches, rapidly decreases in its caliber.
a) a. circumflexa femoris medialis, going medially and upward, gives branches to m. pectineus, leading to the muscles of the thigh, and to the hip joint;
b) a. The circumflexa femoris lateralis departs somewhat lower than the previous one, is sent to the lateral side under m. rectus, where it is divided into ramus ascendens (goes up and laterally to the greater skewer) and ramus descendens (branches out in tons quadriceps);
c) aa. perforantes (three) move away from the posterior surface of the deep artery of the thigh and, piercing the adductors, pass to the posterior surface of the thigh; the first piercing artery gives the upper feeding thigh artery to the femur (a. diaphyseos femoris superior), and the third to the lower artery (a. diaphyseos femoris inferior); aa perforantes are of paramount importance when bandaging the femoral artery below the level of discharge of the deep femoral artery.
5. Rami musculares femoral artery – to the thigh muscles.
6. A. genus descendens, the descending artery of the knee, moves away from a. femoralis on its way to canalis adductorius and, going out through the front wall of this channel together with n. sap-henus, supplies m. vastus medialis; participates in the formation of the arterial network of the knee joint.