Radial artery, a. radialis, the direction is a continuation of the brachial artery. It goes medially from m. brachioradialis, first covered by it, and later in sulcus radialis; in the lower third of the forearm, where the muscles pass into the tendons, the radial artery is covered from the surface only with the fascia and skin, which is why it serves because of easy accessibility for the study of the pulse. Reaching the top of the styloid process of the radius, a. The radialis passes to the rear, bending around the lateral edge of the wrist and lying down in the so-called snuff box, from where it goes to the palm in the first interosseous gap between the bases I and II of the metacarpal bones. In the palm, the radial artery along with the deep branch a. ulnaris forms the arcus palmaris profundus – a deep palmar arch.
The branches of the radial artery:
1. A. recurrens radialis, the return radial artery, begins in the ulnar fossa, goes in the proximal direction to the front surface of the lateral epicondyle, where it anastomoses with the above a. collateralis radialis of a. produnda brachii.
2. Rami musculares – to the surrounding muscles.
3. Ramus carpeus palmaris, the palm of the carpal branch, begins at the bottom of the forearm and goes to the elbow towards a similar branch from a. ulnaris. From anastomosis with ramus carpeus palmaris a. ulnaris on the palmar surface of the wrist is formed of rete carpi palmare.
4. Ramus palmaris superficialis, the superficial palmar branch, passes over the thenar or pierces its surface layers and, connected to the end of the ulnar artery, enters the arcus palmaris superficialis
5. Ramus carpeus dorsalis, the back carpal branch, moves away in the “snuffbox” area and with the eponymous branch a. ulnaris forms a network on the rear of the wrist, a rete carpi dorsale, which also receives branches from the interosseous arteries (aa. interosseae anterior et posterior).
6. A. metacarpea dorsalis prima, the first dorsal metacarpal artery, goes on the back of the hand to the radial side of the index finger and to both sides of the thumb.
7. A. princeps pollicis, the first artery of the thumb, moves away from the radial one as soon as the last penetrates the first interosseous gap into the palm, goes along the palm of the I metacarpal and divides into branches, aa. digitalis palmares, to both sides of the thumb and to the ray side of the index finger.