A. mesenterica superior, an artery, departs from the anterior surface of the aorta immediately below the cervical trunk, goes down and forward into the gap between the lower edge of the pancreas in front and the horizontal part of the duodenum at the back, enters the mesentery of the small intestine and descends to the right ileal fossa.
Branches, a. mesentericae superioris:
a) a. pancreatieoduodeiialis inferior goes right along the concave side of the duodeni towards aa. pancreaticoduodenales superiores;
b) aa. intestinales — 10–16 branches that extend from a. mesenterica superior in the left side to the lean (aa. jejundles) and ileum (aa. ilei) intestine; along the way, they are divided dichotomously and adjacent branches are connected to each other, which results in aa. jejunales are three rows of arcs, and along aa. ilei – two rows. Arcs are a functional device that provides blood flow to the intestines during any movements and positions of its loops. From the arcs there are many thin branches that circle the intestinal tube;
c) a. ileocolica runs from the a.r mesenterica superior to the right, supplying the lower part of the intestinum ileum and the cecum with sprigs and sending to the vermiform process a. appendicularis, passing behind the final segment of the ileum;
d) a. colica dextra goes behind the peritoneum to colon ascendens and near it is divided into two branches: ascending (going up towards a. colica media) and descending (going down towards a. ileocolica); branches form adjacent arcs of the colon;
e) a. colica media passes between the sheets of mesocolon transversum and, reaching the transverse colon, is divided into right and left branches, which diverge in the appropriate direction and anastomose: the right branch – with a. colica dextra, left – with a. colica sinistra