Arcs and arteries of the hand. Superficial palmar arch.

Deep palmar arch. In the area of ​​the wrist there are two networks: one palmar, rete carpi palmare, the other rear, rete carpi dorsale.

Rete carpi palmare is formed from the junction of the palmar carpal branches of the radial and ulnar arteries and branches from the anterior interosseous. The palm network of the wrist is located on the ligamentous apparatus of the wrist under the flexor tendons; its branches feed the ligaments and articulationes mediocarpea et radiocarpea.

Rete carpi dorsale is formed from the junction of the posterior carpal branches of the radial and ulnar arteries and branches from the interosseous; located under the extensor tendons and gives branches:
a) to the nearest joints {yy. ag-ticuldres)
b) in the second, third and fourth inter-bone gaps {aa. te-tacarpeae dor sales); at the base of the fingers, each of them is divided into branches to the fingers {aa. digitales dorsdles).

On the palm there are two arcs – superficial and deep.

Arcus palmaris superficialis, superficial palmar arch, located under aponeurosis palmaris. Being a continuation of the ulnar artery, the surface arc decreases in its caliber towards the radial side, where it includes the superficial palmar artery branch. From the convex steel side of the arc are four aa. digitales palmares communes. Three of them go to the second, third and fourth interbone spacing, respectively, the fourth – to the ulnar side of the little finger. At the fold of skin between the fingers, each of them is divided into two aa. digitales palmares propriae, which are directed along opposite sides of adjacent fingers.

Arcus palmaris profundus, a deep palmar arch, is located deep beneath the flexor tendons on the bases of the metacarpal bones and ligaments, proximal to the superficial arc. The deep palmar arch, being formed mainly by the radial artery, decreases in its caliber in contrast to the surface towards the ulnar side of the hand, where it joins the relatively thin deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery. From the convex side of the deep arc, in the distal direction to the three inter-bone gaps, starting from the second, three aa. metacarpeae palmares, which in the interdigital folds merge with the ends of the common palmar finger arteries. Three small branches (aa. Perfordntes), which, going to the rear, anastomose with aa, depart from the arc in the dorsal direction through the interosseous gaps (second, third and fourth). metacarpeae dorsales.

The superficial and deep arterial arcs are an important functional device: in connection with the grasping function of the hand, the vessels of the hand are often compressed. When the blood flow in the superficial palmar arch is disturbed, the blood supply to the hand does not suffer, since blood delivery occurs in such cases through the arteries of the deep arc. The same functional devices are the articular networks, due to which blood flows freely into the joint, despite the compression and tension of the vessels during its movements. In the area of ​​the upper limb there are rich opportunities for the development of collateral circulation. Collateral vessel for a. brachialis is a. profunda brachii, for a. ulnaris – a. interossea communis.

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