Intraorganic arteries of the heart
The first one descends along the anterior interventricular sulcus to the apex of the heart, where it anastomoses with the branch of the right coronary artery. The second, continuing the main trunk of the left coronary artery, bends around the coronary sulcus the heart on the left side and also connects to the right coronary artery. As a result, an arterial ring located in the horizontal plane is formed along the entire coronary sulcus, from which the branches go to the heart perpendicularly. The ring is a functional device for the collateral circulation of the heart. The branches of the left coronary artery vascularize the left, atrium, the entire anterior wall and most of the posterior wall of the left ventricle, part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle, anterior 2/3 of the interventricular septum and the anterior papillary muscle of the left ventricle.
Different variants of the development of coronary arteries are observed, as a result of which there are various ratios of blood supply pools. From this point of view, there are three forms of blood supply to the heart: uniform, with the same development of both coronary arteries, left-handed and right-handed. In addition to the coronary arteries, “additional” arteries from the bronchial arteries, from the lower surface of the aortic arch near the arterial ligament, approach the heart, which is important to take into account in order not to damage them during operations on the lungs and esophagus and not to impair the blood supply to the heart.
The branches of the atria (rr. Atriales) and their ears (rr. Auriculares), the branches of the ventricles (rr. Ventriculares), and the partition walls (rr. Septales anteriores et posteriores) depart from the trunks of the coronary arteries and their large branches, respectively. Having infiltrated into the myocardium, they branch out according to the number, location and arrangement of its layers: first in the outer layer, then on average (in the ventricles) and finally in the inner, then penetrate the papillary muscles (aa. Papillares) and even in the atrial ventricular valves The intramuscular arteries in each layer follow the course of the muscle bundles and anastomose in all layers and parts of the heart.
Some of these arteries have a highly developed layer of involuntary muscles in their walls, with their reduction, a complete closure of the vessel lumen occurs, which is why these arteries are called “closing”. A temporary spasm of the “closure” arteries may result in cessation of blood flow to a given area of the heart muscle and cause myocardial infarction.