Brachial artery. Branches of the brachial artery: deep artery of the shoulder, upper and lower ulnar artery.

Brachial artery, a. brachialis, is a direct continuation of the axillary artery. Starting at the bottom edge m. teres major, it stretches into sulcus bicipitalis up to the elbow bend, where at the level of the neck the radial bone is divided into its final branches – the radial and ulnar arteries. On its way to sulcus bicipitalis medialis, it is accompanied by two brachial veins and nerves (n. Medianus, n. Ulnaris, n. Cutaneus brachii medialis et n. Cutaneus antebrachii medialis). In addition to small branches to the bone and muscles, the brachial artery gives the following branches:

1. A. profunda brachii, deep artery of the shoulder, moving away from a. brachialis shortly after the start of the latter; It is a large branch that, together with n. radialis, passes into canalis humeromuscu-laris, gives in its path an artery that feeds the humerus {a. diaphyseos humeri), and splits into a. collateralis media penetrating the thickness m. triceps and anastomosing with a. interossea recurrens (from a. interossea posterior), and a. collateralis radialis; the latter comes to the surface through the lower opening of the spiral canal, goes anterior to the epicondylus lateralis and anastomoses with a. recurrens radialis (branch a. radialis). The deep brachial artery often (50%) departs along with other branches of the brachial or axillary arteries or (30%) is absent.

2. A. collateralis ulnaris superior, superior ulnar collateral artery, extends from the brachial artery in the middle of the shoulder, descends into the sulcus behind the epicondylus medialis, where it anastomoses with a. recurrens ulnaris posterior (branch a. ulnaris).

3. A. collateralis ulnaris inferior, the lower ulnar collateral artery, extends from the brachial artery about 5 cm above the end of the latter and anastomizes anteriorly from the epicondylus medialis with a. recurrens ulnaris anterior (branch a. ulnaris).

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