1. Truncus coeliacus, the celiac trunk, is short (2 cm), but a thick artery that moves at the level of the XII thoracic vertebra in the hiatus aorticus diaphragm, goes forward over the upper edge of the pancreas and immediately divides into three branches (the division point is called tripus coeliacus ): a. gastrica sinistra, a. hepatica communis and a. lienalis.
1. A. gastrica sinistra, the left gastric artery, goes to the lesser curvature of the stomach, gives branches to both the stomach and pars abdominalis esophagi.
2. A. hepatica communis, the common hepatic artery, goes along the upper edge of the pancreatic head to the superior edge of the duodeni, hence after the release of a. gastroduodenalis (which may be multiple) she is like a. hepatica propria (own hepatic artery) is sent to the gate of the liver, located between two sheets of lig. hepatoduodenal, and in a bundle it lies anterior to v. portae and to the left of ductus choledochus.
In the gates of the liver a. hepatica propria is divided into ramus dexter and ramus sinister; ramus dexter near the junction of ductus hepatic communis with ductus cysticus gives the artery of the gallbladder, a. cystica
From a. hepatica communis or a. hepatica propria leaves a branch to the lesser curvature of the stomach, a. gastrica dextra, going from right to left towards a. gastrica sinistra. Mentioned above a. gastroduodenalis passes behind duodenum and is divided into two branches: a. gastroepiploica dextra, which goes from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach, gives branches to the stomach and to the omentum, in the front wall of which it passes, and aa. pancreaticoduodenals superiores, which branch out in the pancreas head and descending part of the duodeni.
3. A. lienalis, s. splenica, the splenic artery, the largest of the three terminal branches of the celiac trunk, travels along the upper edge of the pancreas to the spleen, approaching which, splits into 5-8 terminal branches entering the spleen gate.
On the way gives rami pancreatici. Near the division into terminal branches, the splenic artery gives a. gastroepiploica sinistra, which goes from left to right along the greater curvature of the stomach and joins a. gastroepiploica dextra, forms a (non-permanent) arterial arc, similar to the arc on the lesser curvature. From the arc depart numerous branches to the stomach.
In addition, after the discharge a. gastroepiploica sinistra from the splenic artery to the stomach go numerous aa. gastricae breves, which can fully compensate for the obstruction of blood flow in the main four arteries of the stomach. The latter form around the stomach arterial ring, or crown, consisting of two arcs, located along the small and large curvature. Therefore, they are also called coronary arteries.