According to the structure, function and development of the long tubular bones, the latter are obtained: the diaphyseal arteries are the main one (a. Nutritia, or rather a. Diaphyseos princeps), enters the middle part of the diaphysis and is divided into r. proximalis and r. distalis, of which the proximal branch supplies blood to the proximal part of the diaphysis, and the distal branch – to the distal one. At the same time, in the long tubular bones, the main diaphyseal arteries enter not strictly in the middle of the bone and not perpendicular to its long axis, but obliquely. Additional (aa. Diaphyseos accessoriae) penetrate the bone at the ends of the diaphysis. Diaphyseal arteries feed the diaphysis from the inside, and the cortical artery receives the cortical arteries from the periosteum. The presence of two systems of the arteries of the diaphysis explains the possibility of a purulent process affecting one layer of the diaphysis while maintaining the other.
In addition to the diaphyseal arteries, the long tubular bone is also supplied by the arteries that are included in the metaphysis (metaphyseal arteries), the epiphyses (epiphyseal arteries), and the apophyses (apophyseal arteries). Epiphyseal cartilage first separates the vessels of the epiphysis from the vessels of the metaphysis; as sostostirovaniya all vessels are interconnected, forming a single system for a given bone. In the short tubular bones with one epiphysis (metacarpus and tarsus), there is one system of epiphyseal arteries. In the short spongy bones (vertebrae, wrist, tarsus, sternum), the vessels enter from different sides, heading towards the points of origin of ossification.
The arteries of the ligaments run along the bundles of connective tissue and along with them are located perpendicular to the corresponding axis of rotation. Muscle arteries go first along the functional axis of the muscle, then penetrate into the perimysium internum and follow it in parallel with the bundles of muscle fibers, giving them perpendicular branches, forming loops stretched along the muscle bundles.
The organs of the lobed structure (lungs, liver, kidneys) of the arteries enter the center of the organ and diverge (three-dimensional) to the periphery of the organ lobes and lobes, respectively.