The axillary artery is a direct continuation of the subclavian artery, a. axillaris, which in turn continues into the brachial artery. The proximal border of the axillary artery trunk is the outer edge of the I rib, the distal border is the lower edge m. teres major (the origin of the brachial artery). The axillary artery lies in cavitas axillaris medially from the shoulder joint and the humerus; front and medial it is located v. axillaris and on three sides – the nerve trunks of the brachial plexus; From below, this neurovascular bundle is covered with skin, fascia, and accumulation of fatty tissue that contains lymph nodes.
In the course of a. axillaris distinguish three divisions:
1) from the clavicle to the upper edge, m. pectoralis minor (trigonum clavipectorale);
2) behind this muscle (trigonum pectorale);
3) from the bottom edge m. pectoralis minor to the bottom edge m. pectoralis major (trigonum subpectorale).
Branches a. axillaris in clagonpectorale trigonum:
1. A. thoracica superior, superior thoracic artery, forks into m. subclavius, both pectoral muscles, m. serratus anterior to the nearest intercostal muscles.
2. A. thoracoacromialis, hematoacromial, takes part in the nutrition of the shoulder joint, m. deltoideus and both pectoral muscles. In trigonum pectorale:
3. A. thoracica lateralis, the lateral pectoral artery, descends along the side wall of the rib cage and sends branches to the mammary gland and surrounding mshtsam.
In trigonum subpectorale:
4. A. subscapulars, the subscapularis artery, the largest branch of the axillary artery, begins near the lower margin m. subscapularis and goes down along this muscle, giving it branches; soon divided into two trunks:
a) a. The circumflexa scapulae leaves through the foramen trilaterum to the dorsal surface of the scapula, where it anastomoses with a. suprascapularis;
b) a. thoracodorsalis serves as a continuation of the subscapularis artery along the lateral edge of the scapula.
5. A. circumflexa humeri posterior, the posterior artery, which goes around the humerus, goes back to the foramen quadrilaterum, bypassing the surgical neck of the humerus behind; covered with deltoid muscle, which she gives branches.
6. A. circumflexa humeri anterior, the anterior artery that goes around the humerus, begins at the same level as the previous one, goes in the lateral direction, bends around the surgical neck of the shoulder from the front, anastomizing with the posterior surrounding artery, and gives branches to the muscles and shoulder joint .
All the branches of the axillary artery are widely anastomized with the branches of the subclavian artery; therefore, the ligation of the axillary artery is higher than a discharge from it a. subscapularis is more profitable than applying a ligature below. Also, ligation of the subclavian artery in its initial part often leads to gangrene, while ligation distal to the discharge of the truncus thyrocervicalis does not give such complications.