Rheumatism. Congenital mitral valve anomaly. Large mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation. a) golistystolichesky, b) late systolic. The syndrome of free-hanging mitral valve: a) at the separation of the chords leading to the anterior mitral valve, b) at the separation of the chords leading to the posterior mitral valve. Mitral regurgitation secondary to left ventricular dilatation and / or dysfunction, the so-called double-diamond mitral valve. Hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Idiopathic calcification of the left atrioventricular orifice. Hereditary diseases of the connective tissue.
Structural changes of the heart during this defect are due to the syndrome of volume overload of the left heart.
With “pure” mitral insufficiency in the M – and B – modes, only indirect signs of this defect are revealed, which most often indicate volume overload of the left heart sections: 1. separation (nonlocking) of fibrosis modified MK cusps in systole (with rheumatic insufficiency) , 2. an increase in the cavities of the left ventricle and the left ventricle with an increase in the stroke volume of the left ventricle (the left ventricular cavity is more than 5.5 cm, LV CDR) is more than 6.5 cm, 3. hyperkinesis of the MZhP and LVSL and their hypertrophy. The most reliable method for detecting mitral regurgitation is Doppler research, in particular, color Doppler scanning. The latter method is the most informative and illustrative and allows you to determine the severity of mitral regurgitation. With a minimal degree of regurgitation, the jet is narrow and not more than 2 cm into the LP cavity,with the second – from 2 to 3.5 cm, with the third degree – by 3.5 – 5 cm, with the fourth (heavy) – jet of regurgitation reaches the roof of the LP. Some authors propose to measure the area of the jet of regurgitation according to the color spectrum, while others – to calculate the volume of regurgitation. However, only the totality of all the above methods can be generally judged on the degree of mitral insufficiency.
Doppler examination of transmitral Color Doppler scanning of blood flow during regurgitation in LP 2-3 degree