Veins of the lower limbs (legs).

Deep and superficial veins of the legs. As in the upper limb, the veins of the lower limb are divided into deep and superficial, or subcutaneous, which pass independently of the arteries.

Deep veins of the foot, and the legs are double and accompany the same arteries. V. poplitea, composed of all deep veins of the leg, is a single trunk located in the popliteal fossa posterior and somewhat laterally from the artery of the same name. V. femoralis is solitary, initially located laterally from the artery of the same name, then gradually passes to the back surface of the artery, and even higher – to its medial surface and passes in this position under the inguinal ligament in the lacuna vasorum. Tributaries v. femoralis all double.

Of the subcutaneous veins of the lower extremity, two trunks are the largest: v. saphena magna and v. saphena parva. Vena saphena magna, the large saphenous vein, originates on the dorsal surface of the foot from rete venosum dorsale pedis and arcus venosus dorsalis pedis. Having received several tributaries from the foot, it goes upwards along the medial side of the shin and thigh. In the upper third of the thigh, it is bent on the anteromedialal surface and, lying on the wide fascia, goes to hiatus saphenus. In this place v. saphena magna joins the femoral vein, spreading over the lower horn of the crescent edge. Quite often v. saphena magna is double, and both of its trunk can flow separately into the femoral vein. Of the other subcutaneous inflows of the femoral vein, v. epigastrica superficialis, v. circumflexa ilium superficialis, vv. pudendae externae, accompanying the same arteries. They flow in part directly into the femoral vein, part in v. saphena magna at its confluence with hiatus saphenus. V. saphena parva, small saphenous vein, starts on the lateral side of the dorsal surface of the foot, bends around the bottom and back of the lateral ankle and rises further along the back of the tibia; first, it goes along the lateral edge of the Achilles tendon, and further upwards in the middle of the posterior part of the lower leg, respectively, the groove between the heads m. gastrocnemii. Reaching the lower corner of the popliteal fossa, v. saphena parva flows into the popliteal vein. V. saphena parva is connected by branches with v. saphena magna.

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